Addressıng of Invasıve Alıen Specıes Threats ın Terrestrıal Areas and Inland Waters ın Turkey
Family Name: Poecilidae
Gambusia affinis holbrooki
Common Name: Doğu Sivrisinek Balığı
English Name: Eastern Mosquitofish
Group: Inland water fish
Year of introduction: 1920 (White ve Pyke, 2009)
Year of first report: 1975 (Balık, 1975)
National distribution area:
There are reports from all basins except Çoruh, Kura-Aras and Yeşilırmak (Kurtul, 2018; Yoğurtçuoğlu and Ekmekçi, 2018).
Details of distribution:
The most intense distribution report is provided from Sakarya basin. This basin is followed by Antalya, Asi River and Büyük Menderes basins. The smallest number of reports is provided from northern and eastern parts of Turkey (Yoğurtçuoğlu ve Ekmekçi, 2018).
Type of Pathway of introduction way:
by human hand, floods and artificial watercourses
Natural distribution area:
East of North America. Throughout the east of the Apalachian Mountains to the states of Miami and New Orleans (Pyke, 2008).
Although they have a very flexible habitat compatibility, they generally prefer areas which are shallow, still or low-flow waters and underwater plants (Pyke, 2005; Pyke, 2008).
It has a potential of very high invasiveness (Tarkan et al. 2017)
It is known to have serious negative effects on local fauna (various invertebrates, fish and amphibians) in the environments it enters. These effects generally occur in the form of aggression, direct hunting (predation) and competition for habitats and resources (Pyke, 2008). It could be acknowledged that the endemic species dişlisazancık which has a very similar ecological niche with this species and many rare amphibian species sharing same habitat are under high risk. (Yoğurtçuoğlu, 2016; Yoğurtçuoğlu and Ekmekçi, 2017; Yoğurtçuoğlu et. al. 2020).
Carrying this species from one place to another for any purpose should be completely prohibited. With the effective use of early warning tools such as citizen science or eDNA scanning, the species needs to be recognized early and eliminated or controlled to the extent possible. It is recommended that awareness raising trainings on the harms and control measures of the species should be expanded in cooperation with local administration units in regions where the species is dense.