Addressıng of Invasıve Alıen Specıes Threats ın Terrestrıal Areas and Inland Waters ın Turkey
Family name: Psittaculidae (Old World Parrots)
Species name: Psittacula krameri
Synonym name: NA
Common name: Yeşil papağan
English name Rose-ringed Parakeet also known in some publications as Ring-necked Parakeet
Year of introduction: 1975
Year of first report: 1975
National distribution area:
So far there are reports delivered from 29 different provinces in Turkey as Adana, Ankara, Antalya, Balıkesir, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Çanakkale, Denizli, Gaziantep, Giresun, Hatay, İstanbul, İzmir, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kırklareli, Kırşehir, Kocaeli, Muğla, Mersin, Osmaniye, Sakarya, Samsun, Sinop, Tekirdağ, Trabzon, Şanlıurfa and Yalova.
Rose-ringed parakeet breeds in İstanbul, Ankara, İzmir, Yalova and Şanlıurfa among the cities listed above. In other cities, it could not constitute a population in nature. The most intense population is in Istanbul. Istanbul is followed by Yalova and Ankara.
Type of introduction:
Accidental releases and/or deliberate releases
Pathway of introduction:
Rose-ringed parakeets naturally seen in Sub-Saharan Africa and India.
Rose-ringed parakeets are a species that can be found in quite different habitats such as riparian forests, mangroves, savannahs, meadows, open farming areas, scattered woodlands, residential parks and gardens. In Turkey, it exists in parks, gardens and groves where there are trees.
Population status shows an increase. Rose-ringed parakeet, which was observed only in provinces such as Istanbul and Izmir in the first years, increases its spread in different provinces. It is estimated that in 1355 Rose-ringed parakeet in Turkey. It is also estimated that approximately 1000 of these are in Istanbul.
It is estimated that there are more than 1000 individuals in Istanbul, 150 individuals in Izmir, 60 individuals in Ankara, 20 individuals in Antalya, 10 individuals in Şanlıurfa, 100 individuals in Yalova, 15 individuals in other provinces.
Rose-ringed parakeets exist as invasive alien species in a total of 41 countries, with the exception of countries with natural distribution. Algeria, Congo, Egypt, Kenya, Moritus, Morocco, Seychelles, Republic of South Africa, Zanzibar, Bahrain, Hong Kong, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Macau, Amman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Slovenia, Switzerland, the UK, Cuba, USA, Australia.
It is considered as an agricultural pest because it damages agricultural products such as orchards, corn, grain, etc. It is considered harmful by humans due to its effects such as noise, stool accumulation, parasite and pathogen carrier that could lead into disease. During the breeding period, it competes for nest burrows in the trees and competes with other breeds breeding in the burrow. It has been identified that it competes with the nutcrackers and woodpeckers for nest burrows. It is stated that it causes a significant decrease the population size of a bat species (Nyctalus lasiopterus) in Spain and the species is at risk. Although its exact effects could not be identified, it is observed that it interacts with various species such as squirrel, sparrow, carrion crow, Caspian gull and small crow.
Rose-ringed parakeet spreads each day in Turkey and shows an increase in its population. It is reported that the negative effects of this species, which has existed in many countries without any impact for many years, increase when the population reaches a certain threshold. Therefore, the distribution status of green parrots in Turkey, monitoring and taking the necessary measures of population size and the effect is significant.